A Review


  • Filip Benko Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Nitra, Slovak Republic
  • Michal LENICKÝ Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Nitra, Slovak Republic
  • Norbert LUKÁČ Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Nitra, Slovak Republic
  • Eva TVRDÁ Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Nitra, Slovak Republic


cryopreservation, bovine spermatozoa, cryodamage


Cryopreservation of bovine spermatozoa represents a powerful technology for the distribution of livestock and improvement of the availability and quality of the genetic material in numerous ruminant species. Nevertheless, a significant amount of sperm cells shows typical features of cryodamage, which may affect the quality and fertility potential of thawed samples used for artificial insemination. Low temperatures during the freezing process could cause several issues, which may lead to irreversible cell damage. Most common contraindications related to cryopreservation include the presence of ice crystals, oxidative stress, microbial contamination, cryocapacitation or a possible toxicity of cryoprotectants. However, cryobiology plays an important role in the reproduction of domestic animals and this is the reason why it is necessary to study sperm fertility markers and the effect of cryopreservation on the sperm viability. A more detailed research could improve new protocols and advanced technologies to improve the quality of cryopreserved samples in the future.


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