HEMPSEED CAKE IN RABBIT NUTRITION: LIVESTOCK PERFORMANCES, QUALITY OF MEAT, DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AND ANIMAL HEALTH STATUS

Authors

  • Zuzana FORMELOVÁ
  • Ľubica CHRASTINOVÁ
  • Mária CHRENKOVÁ
  • Mária POLAČIKOVÁ
  • Matúš RAJSKÝ
  • Ondřej BUČKO
  • Anna KALAFOVÁ
  • Anton KOVÁČIK
  • Stanislav BAXA
  • Zuzana MLYNEKOVÁ
  • Ľubomír ONDRUŠKA
  • Rastislav JURČÍK
  • Rudolf ŽITŇAN
  • Francesco VIZZARRI

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36547/sjas.841

Keywords:

hempseed cake, rabbits, meat

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dried hempseed cake (by-product of oil production) supplementation (5 % − EG1 and 10 % − EG2) to rabbit feed mixture on livestock performances, quality of meat, digestibility of nutrients and animal health status. The chemical composition of the Longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle including the content of fatty acids and amino acids, and the biochemical parameters in caecum and blood of growing rabbits were investigated. No significant differences among the experimental groups in feed intake, body weight and carcass parameters were found. The digestibility trial was performed using the balance method. Feed mixtures differed in digestible energy content i.e., crude protein, crude fibre and fat. The resulting digestibility coefficients for protein fell within the range of 66.72 − 74.18 %, fat digestibility was in the interval from 88.73 to 89.34 % and crude fibre digestibility was in the range from 27.56 to 34.59 %. Fatty acid profile in intramuscular lipids represents the highest content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; 47.72 − 48.51 %), followed by the content of saturated acids (SFA; 33.75 − 33.87 %) and a low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 11.23 − 12.08 %). Hempseed oil cake could be included in rabbits' diet with beneficial effect on carcass quality and can enhance the nutritional quality of rabbit meat with the focus on essential amino acids. The tested blood serum parameters were within the range of the physiological reference values with no statistical differences between experimental groups, except for glucose and cholesterol content. The data on volatile fatty acids (VFA) show that most intensive process was in the caecum of rabbits in the experimental groups EG1 and EG2. All obtained data let us to recommend the inclusion of hempseed cake up to 10 % in rabbit diet without any negative effect on animal welfare, livestock performance and quality of meat.

References

AOAC (2005). Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, USA.

Bannon, C. D., Breen, G. J., Hal, N. & Órourke, K. L. (1982). Analysis of fatty acids methylesters with accuracy and reliability. Journal of Chromatography A, 247(1), 71−89.

Bianospino, E., Wechsler, F. S., Fernandes, S., Roça, R. D. O. & Moura, A. S. A. (2006). Growth, carcass and meat quality traits of straightbred and crossbred Botucatu rabbits. World Rabbit Science, 237−246. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2006.563.

Burns, D. A. & Ciurczak, E. W. (2007). Handbook of Near-Infrared Analysis (Practical Spectroscopy), 3rd ed. CRC Press, p. 349−369.

Burnett, N., Mathura, K., Metivier, K. S., Holder, R. B., Brown, G. & Campbell, M. (2006). An investigation into haematological and serum chemistry parameters of rabbits in Trinidad. World Rabbit Science, 14, 175−187.

Combes, S., Fortune-Lamothe, L., Cauqui, L. & Gidenne, T. (2013). Engineering the rabbit digestive ecosystem to improve digestive health and efficacy. Animal, 7(9), 1429−1439. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1751731113001079

Dalle Zotte, A. (2002). Perception of rabbit meat quality and major factors influencing the rabbit carcass and meat quality. Livestock Production Science, 75(1), 11−32.

Dalle Zotte, A. & Szendro, S. (2011). The role of rabbit meat as functional food. Meat Science, 88, 319−331. DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.02.017

Decree of The Ministry of Agriculture of The Slovak Republic (2004). No.2145/2004-100.

E.G.R.A.N. (2001). Technical note: Attempts to harmonize chemical analyses of feeds and faeces for rabbit feed evaluation. World Rabbit of Science, 9, 57−64.

EFSA. (2011). Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP). Scientific Opinion on the safety of hemp (Cannabis genus) for use as animal feed. EFSA Journal, 9(3), 2011.

Gidenne, T., Pérez, J. M., Xiccato, G., Trocino, A., Carabaño, R., Villamide, M. J., Blas, E., Cervera, C., Falcao, L., Cunha, E. & Maertens, L. (2001). Technical note: Attempts to harmonize chemical analyses of feeds and faeces for rabbit feed evaluation. World Rabbit Science, 9, 57−64.

Gidenne, T. & Fortun−Lamothe, L. (2002). Feeding strategy for young rabbits around weaning. A review of digestive capacity and nutritional needs. Animal Science, 75, 169−184.

Hernández, P., Pla, M., Oliver, M. A. & Blasco, A. (2000). Relationships between meat quality measurements in rabbits fed with three diets of different fat type and content. Meat Science, 55, 379−384. DOI: 10.1016/S0309-1740 (99) 00163-1.

Chrastinová, Ľ., Lauková, A., Chrenková, M., Polačiková, M., Formelová, Z., Kandričáková, A., Bino, E., Ščerbová, J., Bučko, O., Ondruška, Ľ., Szabóová, R. & Jurčík, R. (2018). Effects of Enterocin M and Durancin ED26E/7 substances applied in drinking water on the selected carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler rabbits. Archiva Zootechnica, 21(1), 5−17.

Hašek, A. & Palanská, O. (1976). Determination of water holding capacity in meat by instruments at constant pressure (in Slovak). Poultry Industry, 8, 228−233.

Henchion, M., Hayes, M., Mullen, A. M., Fenelon, M. & Tiwari, B. (2017). Future protein supply and demand: strategies and factors influencing a sustainable equilibrium. Foods, 6(7), 53.

House, J. D., Neufeld, J. & Leson, G. (2010). Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(22), 11801−11807.

Ondruška, Ľ., Chrastinová, Ľ., Chrenek, P., Rafay, J. & Parkanyi, V. (2010). Digestibility of nutrients by transgenic and non-transgenic rabbits. Slovak Journal of Animal Science, 43(4), 210−214.

Ouhayoun, J. (1992). Rabbit meat characteristics and qualitative variability. Cuni-Sciences, 7, 1−15.

Illes, R, A., Cohen, R. D., Rist, A. H. & Banon, P. G. (1977). The mechanism inhibition by acidosis of gluconeogenesis from lactate in rat liver. The Biochemical Journal, 164, 185−191.

Kalafová, A., Bulla, J., Bučko, O., Emrichová, J., Zbýňovská, K., Petruška, P., Schneidgenová, M., Chrastinová, Ľ., Ondruška, Ľ., Jurčík, R., Čupka, P., Mellen, M. & Capcarová, M. (2014). Meat quality of female rabbits following administration of epicatechin. Maso, 4(1), 71−75.

Kalafová, A., Bulla, J., Bučko, O., Emrichová, J., Zbýňovská, K., Petruška, P., Schneidgenová, M., Chrastinová, Ľ., Ondruška, Ľ., Jurčík, R., Mellen, M. & Capcarová, M. (2015). Quality of meat rabbits after aplication of epicatechin and patulin. Potravinárstvo / Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 9(1), 124-132.

Kociniewska, R., Rafay, J., Parkányi, V. & Ondruška, Ľ. (2012). Efekt podávania komplexu humínových zložiek na vybrané biochemické ukazovatele krvi králikov. (The effect of administering a complex of humic components on selected biochemical indicators of rabbit blood.) In: Králik ako produkčné a modelové zviera. 25. Vedecká konferencia s medzinárodnou účasťou, CVŽV Nitra, 21.11.2012, s. 113.

Kummerow, F. A. (2009). The negative effects of hydrogenated trans fats and what to do about them. Atherosclerosis, 205, 458−465.

Lambertini, L., Bergoglio, G., Masoero, G. & Gramenzi, A. (1996). Comparison between Provisal and Hyla rabbit strains. I. Slaughtering performances and muscle composition. Proccedings 6th WRSA Congres, Toulouse, France, 195−199.

Lauková, A., Pogány Simonová, M., Chrastinová, Ľ., Kandričáková, A., Ščerbová, J., Plachá, I., Čobanová, K., Formelová, Z., Ondruška, Ľ., Štrkolcová, G. & Strompfová, V. (2017). Beneficial effect of bacteriocin-producing strain Enterococcus durans ED 26E/7 in model experiment using broiler rabbits. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 62, 168−177.

Lauková, A., Pogány Simonová, M., Chrastinová, Ľ., Plachá, I., Čobanová, K., Formelová, Z., Chrenková, M., Ondruška, Ľ. & Strompfová, V. (2016). Benefits of combinative application of probiotic, enterocin M producing strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 and Eleutherococcus senticosus in rabbits. Folia Microbiologica, 2016, 61, 169−177.

Lebas, F., Ouhayoun, J. & Delmas, D. (1988). Effects of hempseed oil cake introduction in rabbit feeding on growth performance and carcass quality. Proccedings 4th WRSA Congress, Budapest, Hungary, 254−259.

Marounek, M., Dokoupilová, A., Skřivanová, V. & Berladyn, A. (2006). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and selenium (Se) content of meat of rabbits fed diets enriched with CLA and Se. Annals 3rd Rabbit Congress of the Americas, Maringa City, Brazil.

Münch, S. (2004). Chemistry of fat and accompanying substances (in German). Fleichswirtschaft, 4, 163−167.

Pogány Simonová, M., Chrastinová, Ľ., Mojto, J., Lauková, A., Szabóová, R. & Rafay, J. (2010). Quality of rabbit meat and phyto-additives. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 28, 161−167.

Pogány Simonová, M., Chrastinová, Ľ. & Lauková, A. (2019). Lantibiotic nisin applied in broiler rabbits and its effect on the growth performance and carcass quality. Probiotics Antimicrobial Proteins, 11(4), 1414−1417.

Razmaité, V., Pileckas, V., Bliznikas, S. & Šiukščius, A. (2021). Fatty Acid Composition of Cannabis sativa, Linum usitatissimum and Camelina sativa Seeds Harvested in Lithuania for Food Use. Foods, 10(8), 1902.

Siano, F., Moccia, S., Picariello, G., Russo, G., Sorrentino, G., Di Stasio, M., La Cara, F. & Volpe, M. (2018). Comparative Study of Chemical, Biochemical Characteristic and ATR-FTIR Analysis of Seeds, Oil and Flour of the Edible Fedora Cultivar Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Molecules, 24(1), 83.

Sorrentino, G. (2021). Introduction to emerging industrial applications of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali, 32, 233−243.

STN 570185 (1962). Slovak Technical Standards. Examination of meat, meat products and canned meat and prepared meats in cans. Chemical and Physical Methods. Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

Strmiska, F., Holčíkova, K., Simonová, E., Mrázová, E., Hodeková, J., Votaššaková, A., Pristašová, M., Strmiska, J., Strmisková, G., Krupařová, M., Gola, J., Pappajová, H., Mareš, J., Kostkanová, E. & Ehrenhaft, B. (1988). Požívatinové tabuľky I – Potravinárske suroviny, Food Tables I − Primary Foods (in Slovak with English summary and register). Výskumný ústav potravinársky (Food Research Institute), Bratislava, 189.

Teleszko, M., Zając, A. & Rusak, T. (2022). Hemp Seeds of the Polish 'Bialobrzeskie' and 'Henola' Varieties (Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa) as Prospective Plant Sources for Food Production. Molecules, 27(4), 1448, DOI: 10.3390/molecules27041448

Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. & Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583−3597.

Voigt, J. & Steeger, H. (1967). Zur quantitativen Bestimmung von Amoniak, Harnstoff und Ketokőrpern in biologischem Material mit Hilfe eines modifizierten Mikrodiffusionsgefässes. Archiv für Tierernährung, 17, 289−293.

Wiseman, J., Villamide, M. J., De Blas, C., Carabano, M. J. & Carabano, R. M. (1992). Prediction of the digestible energy and digestibility of gross energy of feed for rabbits. 1. Individual classes of feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 39, 27−38.

Zadina, J., Mach, K., Skřivanová, V., Hejlíček, K. & Majzlík, I. (2004). Chov králíků. 1. vyd. [Rabbit breeding. 1st ed.] Praha: Brázda, s.r.o. 208 p. ISBN 80-203-0325-9

Downloads

Published

2023-12-30

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>